Cu Chi tunnels at Ben Dinh, 50 km from Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). this intricate network of 200 km of tunnels was a bitter battleground during the American (Vietnam) War. The tunnel entrances were too small for most American soldiers to fit through - John could only fit his shoulders through if he put his arms above his head. "In order to combat better-supplied American and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War, Communist guerrilla troops known as Viet Cong (VC) dug tens of thousands of miles of tunnels, including an extensive network running underneath the Cu Chi district northwest of Saigon. Soldiers used these underground routes to house troops, transport communications and supplies, lay booby traps and mount surprise attacks, after which they could disappear underground to safety. As the United States relied heavily on aerial bombing, North Vietnamese and VC troops went underground in order to survive and continue their guerrilla tactics against the much better-supplied enemy. In heavily bombed areas, people spent much of their life underground, and the Cu Chi tunnels grew to house entire underground villages, in effect, with living quarters, kitchens, ordnance factories, hospitals and bomb shelters. In some areas there were even large theatres and music halls to provide diversion for the troops (many of them peasants) and their supporters."